With the help of various types of cutters, you can more accurately and efficiently milling parts. These can be of different materials, but the most common processing is on metals. With the help of modern machine tools equipped with CNC systems, it is possible to reduce the number of rejects and control it using simple numerical programs. Now the cutter has been replaced with a blade as a working tool, which made it possible to reduce the likelihood of rejects, making the workpieces as accurate as possible.
What is milling for processing? With its help, you can cut in metals, grind, apply special patterns, engrave, as well as do turning and other work in various activities. The set includes several multi-tooth cutting cutters, and their fastening in the machines determines the horizontal or vertical type of work. In production, milling at a certain angle can be used, for which the cutter is pre-installed in the required direction. Depending on the type of processed product, such milling has several methods. But it is worth noting that a considerable number of various cutters are used, in particular, these are cylindrical, end, end, gear, shaped and more complex ones.
The fields of application of milling are varied; it can be used in metalworking, mechanical engineering, jewelry production, woodworking, and even in design and architecture.
Metal processing by milling is carried out regardless of its strength. Cutters are selected based on what kind of processing is needed, cylindrical or end types of cutters are used for planes, in the latter, asymmetric cutting patterns are selected. If the parts are of the correct rectangular, square and similar shape, then these two methods are used. The same profile part can be made with a cylindrical cutter or from the end.
Milling cutting of aluminum is considered to be quite popular because aluminum is widely used in exclusive design, interiors, advertising elements, camera equipment, etc. Due to its lightness, strength and low melting point, it is widely used and it is easy to cut various products from it. On the details of souvenirs, marketing and kitchen products on modern high-tech machines, you can make inscriptions, patterns, relief, etc. At the same time, they are obtained without burrs, the correct size and shape, as well as with perfect edges.
Volume milling of plastic, especially in 3D, has gained considerable popularity in our time. These are demanded services that are used for industrial products, enclosures. Moreover, the details are quickly made, since the milling and engraving type machine works quite quickly, and the price for the work performed is low. Both spline and shaped and gear parts are processed, as well as processing of holes, ends, grooves. From plastic in 3D form, you can mill decorative and other parts, casting molds, polymer cases and much more, creating original and desired product shapes.
CLASSIFICATION OF MILLING WORKS
As already mentioned, depending on the cutter used, there are several types of milling, namely:
Face milling, the essence of which is to obtain a certain shape of parts using an end mill. In most cases, this is necessary for cutting undercuts, grooves, a window, as well as a "well", a groove, etc. in products. With its help, reverse milling of the end face from the inside of a different plan of products is performed. End milling is needed to obtain parts with more accurate dimensions, ease of installation, and, in fact, cut ends serve to transmit compressive forces.
End, which are needed for the formation of ledges in planes of a vertical or horizontal shape.
Cylindrical, characterized by the production of products in planes with the corresponding milling cutter in the opposite position.
Shaped, which consists in creating shaped (spheres, ellipses, etc.) parts of irregular shape. This is milling with special cutters, resulting in shaped products.
Types of milling work
Many other types of cutters are also common in different areas of activity, which are distinguished by their multifunctionality, great capabilities and accuracy in performing work. Helical grooves are used to create countersinks, drills, etc. It is worth noting the difference between milling with double discs, a slotted blade for creating grooves in parts, as well as their more complex shapes. You can also create a specific shape with a short application of milling types.
In addition to the classification of milling by types of cutters, there is a distribution of them on a vertical arrangement in the machine, horizontal and at an angle.
Machine tools for such work, in turn, are divided into mechanical and laser. There is a direction of the cutting, driving element together with the product, which is commonly referred to as a passing type of processing. If the product moves towards the cutter, then it is considered to be counter milling.
Profile milling of parts, both wood and metal, etc. This differs in products that are convex or concave. In this case, it is necessary to carefully approach the choice of the technological type, which depends mainly on the size of the part and the complexity of the profiling. This type of process takes place in three stages: preliminary rough and partially clean milling, semi-clean and finally final clean. Often, to obtain high quality parts, finishing is performed with high feed rates, and the previous operations are performed separately on different machines.
Since for milling parts in a cylindrical way, it is performed with not so good fastening, most often profile milling of products is done in an end way. Basically, it is a universal method for multi-batch industrial production. In this case, it is possible to use several methods of milling different flat surfaces. This is the use of two chisels, large diameter cutters and several chisels at the same time.
Types of cutters
Work in this mode can be much faster and more relaxed, especially when using several cutters at once, located on different sides of the product. For this reason, surface milling with face mills is more commonly used in production.
Milling is carried out, in addition, also with the help of an ion beam. This is a relatively new and high-tech process that allows you to remove the most accurate metal layer. Ionic milling is carried out by the action of a helium atom on the surface, the main condition is the control of voltage and energy. In other words, today it is not necessary to polish or grind parts, it can be done at the atomic level, and additional parts can be inserted onto the hot metal.
TECHNOLOGICAL STAGES OF THE PROCESS
As for the technological process of milling, it consists of several sequences that must be adhered to:
The product is carefully brought from the side of the surface required for processing to the router, which is rotating at this time.
Having taken the table away, the spindle is turned off so that it does not rotate.
After that, you need to set the required cutting depth.
The spindle is started.
The product, located on the table, is brought along with it to the docking with the cutter.
The processing of metal parts with a cylindrical cutter is carried out with a cutter length 10-15 mm more than the product is, and its diameter is selected based on the cutting thickness and width. When choosing face mills, work is done quietly because parts are more securely attached. The productivity of the enterprise will be high when using a set of cutters, since the task is greatly simplified. It all depends on the cutters used, and these are: joint cutters, chisels, with two discs at the same time, a set of cutters located on different sides of the workpiece, etc. Milling planes with several end mills makes several cuts at once and a claim.